Machine Learning is a new trending field these days and is an application of artificial intelligence. It uses certain statistical algorithms to make computers work in a certain way without being explicitly programmed. The algorithms receive an input value and predict an output for this by the use of certain statistical methods. The main aim of machine learning is to create intelligent machines which can think and work like human beings.

Requirements of creating good machine learning systems

So what is required for creating such intelligent systems? Following are the things required in creating such machine learning systems:

Data – Input data is required for predicting the output.

Algorithms – Machine Learning is dependent on certain statistical algorithms to determine data patterns.

Automation – It is the ability to make systems operate automatically.

Iteration – The complete process is an iterative i.e. repetition of the process.

Scalability – The capacity of the machine can be increased or decreased in size and scale.

Modeling – The models are created according to the demand by the process of modeling.

Methods of Machine Learning

The methods are classified into certain categories. These are:

Supervised Learning – In this method, input and output is provided to the computer along with feedback during the training. The accuracy of predictions by the computer during training is also analyzed. The main goal of this training is to make computers learn how to map input to the output.

Unsupervised Learning – In this case, no such training is provided leaving computers to find the output on its own. Unsupervised learning is mostly applied on transactional data. It is used in more complex tasks. It uses another approach of iteration known as deep learning to arrive at some conclusions.

Reinforcement Learning – This type of learning uses three components namely – agent, environment, action. An agent is the one that perceives its surroundings, an environment is the one with which an agent interacts and acts in that environment. The main goal in reinforcement learning is to find the best possible policy.

How does machine learning work?

Machine learning makes use of processes similar to that of data mining. The algorithms are described in terms of target function(f) that maps input variable (x) to an output variable (y). This can be represented as:

y=f(x)

There is also an error e which is the independent of the input variable x. Thus the more generalized form of the equation is:

y=f(x) + e

The common type of machine learning is to learn the mapping of x to y for predictions. This method is known as predictive modeling to make most accurate predictions. There are various assumptions for this function.

Applications of Machine Learning

Following are some of the applications:

Cognitive Services

Medical Services

Language Processing

Business Management

Image Recognition

Face Detection

Video Games

Benefits of Machine Learning

Everything is dependent on these systems. Find out what are the benefits of this.

Decision making is faster – It provides the best possible outcomes by prioritizing the routine decision-making processes.

Adaptability – It provides the ability to adapt to new changing environment rapidly. The environment changes rapidly due to the fact that data is being constantly updated.

Innovation – It uses advanced algorithms that improve the overall decision-making capacity. This helps in developing innovative business services and models.

Insight – It helps in understanding unique data patterns and based on which specific actions can be taken.

Business growth – With machine learning overall business process and workflow will be faster and hence this would contribute to the overall business growth and acceleration.

Outcome will be good – With this the quality of the outcome will be improved with lesser chances of error.

Deep Learning

Deep Learning is a part of the broader field machine learning and is based on data representation learning. It is based on the interpretation of artificial neural network. Deep Learning algorithm uses many layers of processing. Each layer uses the output of previous layer as an input to itself. The algorithm used can be supervised algorithm or unsupervised algorithm.

Deep Neural Network

Deep Neural Network is a type of Artificial Neural Network with multiple layers which are hidden between the input layer and the output layer. This concept is known as feature hierarchy and it tends to increase the complexity and abstraction of data. This gives network the ability to handle very large, high-dimensional data sets having millions of parameters.

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are extremely important and relevant in the electronics and appliance industries. A PCB collects the electronic elements of a product using conductive products that are usually etched on a “non-conductive” substrate. Naturally, PCBs are used extensively in production of many products, including regular consumer goods. All kinds of active devices and components, including resisters and capacitors, are usually soldered to the board.

If you are looking to place an order for your business and want to find a reliable printed circuit board manufacturer, there are a few aspects that you need to note.

1. First things first, check if the manufacturer is well known in the industry. Ask relevant questions like – How long have you been in business? Who are your clients? How many batches or orders do you handle each month? Can you share a few references? A company that has been around for a long time will never shy away from offering references. They will also do what it takes to convince their new and prospective clients. You can also check their website to find a few more relevant details.

2. Check the prices. Don’t be surprised, there are reliable manufactures who can offer low-priced circuit boards without compromising on the quality. They also ensure fast and quick delivery for their clients on request. However, be careful when you choose a service, because there are a few quality standards that must be met. Check if the concerned company has the required certifications, which can vary in some countries.

3. Know their clients. As mentioned earlier, you need to know the industries and clients that a company services. Check if they have worked for the military and some of the other bodies of the government. If they have supplied their products to known firms and electronic companies, it is like an assurance that they will never ever fool around with the quality. If you get references, call a few of them or write an email asking about their experiences.

4. Do not ignore customer service, it is extremely important when ordering PCBs. You need a manufacturer who is around to take questions or concerns and handle them quickly and accurately. It is important to be careful about customer service and whereabouts of the company, because some of them are just brokers and are making money by selling low-quality PCBs to customers.

5. Can they handle specific requirements? PCB requirements can vary, and you need a team that has the capacities to meet different production needs. They must be willing to take up production challenges, and it is not enough to claim things, unless they prove things. You can place a small order for custom PCBs to know more about their commitment towards customization, timely delivery and pricing.

Steel angle bars, with equal or unequal angles play an important role in most of these applications.

Steel angle is a structural steel form having an ‘L’ shaped cross section and two legs. The legs could be equal or unequal and the angle is 90 degree. These come in varied dimensions with customized sizes being available in the market. Different materials are used to make angles depending upon the properties desired in the finished product but basically, angles are produced by high strength low alloy steel or hot-rolled carbon steel. Accordingly you have mild carbon angle, HSLA carbon angle etc. Based on the surface treatment angles can also be classified into hot-dip galvanized and painted or black (no treatment) category. Coatings are smeared on to the angles to enhance the critical temperature of steel. With a change in the alloy composition, the steel’s thermal properties will also differ. Carbon steels are normally used for structural shapes, plates, pipes and tubing. High strength low alloy steels have the same applications in addition to being used for W shapes.

The processes used for bending steel vary depending upon the requirements and they include Three Point Bending, Press Brake Forming, Wiping, Folding, Rotary Bending, Jogging and Elastomer Bending. Press Brake Forming can be again divided into Air Bending, Coining and Bottoming. Angled steel as mentioned above holds a place of significance in several construction and engineering projects and hence the angle produced has to be exact. Various calculations are undertaken to ensure that the resultant product is of the desired quality.

The uses of steel angles are listed below:

· Day-to-Day life uses: They are used in daily living items such as bed frames, benches, chairs, fencing posts, coffee tables, frames for supporting air conditioner etc.

· Supporting and structural uses: The applications include bridges, shelves, warehouses, cable towers, communication towers, power towers, equipment etc.

The reliable performance and low cost of angles make it a popular component in all the applications. Quality considerations hold top priority in its manufacture. As it is widely used in many structural projects, lack of good quality products will diminish the life of the structure whereas angles of high quality and strength will ensure the durability of all the applications. Most of the structural steel projects fail due to weak connections; like at places where a beam connects to a column or where the beam connects to a joist and so on. Therefore, choosing a reliable manufacturer is of paramount importance. A trustworthy store will stock varied sizes of unequal angles, stainless steel plates, alloy steel round bars and all other steel forms that are required for your structural and daily living projects. There are several physical stores or online stores where you can get good quality steel products. Visiting any one of them can help you to fulfil all your requirements.

Stainless steel plates also offer the advantage of high workability, that is, they can be easily used in machining, stamping, welding and fabricating. We also cater to stainless steel plate requirements for piping, storage tanks, housing and architectural requirements.

For professional companies using raw water for their plant, some form of raw water treatment program is generally necessary to ensure a competent plant production approach and quality produced products. The very best raw water treatment program shall help avoid expensive plant downtime, costly maintenance fees, rather than having the ability to sell its products in the market, among other problematic situations.

But how do you pick the best water treatment system for your plant?

The answer to this relevant question can sometimes be a little complex and depends upon a variety of factors. We’ve simplified and divided what this may mean for your company below:

Quality: What is the quality of your raw water origin and do you know the status of the treated water?

Raw water screening and treatability study outcome: Exactly what are the variants of the feed water chemistry as time passes and how does indeed this affect the practice? Will the suggested treatment plans help you fix the problems you are having and meet with local discharge restrictions to your secondary wastes produced?

Plant lifespan: How long will you need to run the operational system? Working with your engineering company to investigate these types of key points can help steer you in the right direction when choosing the very best system for your plant.

The quality of the raw water in relation to the product quality requirements after treatment: One of many greatest factors which will regulate how to select your raw water system is the equipment that will get into the actual make-up of the system, which is often dependent on the quality of your raw water supplier in relation to the quality of water you need after treatment.

What is the quality of your water source? The first thing to understand when choosing the best water treatment system for your plant is normally what your water quality will be.

Sometimes it’s safer to treat your own water from floor or area sources or even to purchase it from a second source, for instance a municipality, but either way, it’s important to measure the quality you happen to be getting. In case the municipal water resource will probably give you low quality water and you must treat it further to make it beneficial within your facility, make certain you’re weighing these options. The contaminants present in the source water in relation to what your water quality needs are will affect the technology within the makeup of your system.

What is the quality of water you need? The second thing to comprehend when choosing the very best water treatment system for your plant may be the quality of water you will need for your company. Does it need to be:

– Pure for drinking?
– Ultrapure for microelectronics development?
– Not pure for domestic use such as for example flushing a product or toilet use?

Also remember that the water quality may be based on your industry. For example, many manufacturing facilities in industries such as power, chemical, petrochemical, and refineries, require huge volumes of water for boilers. Due to this, care must be used selecting the water treatment systems which will properly make the water intended for polishing treatment such as for example removing colloidal pollution from the water.

For the uninitiated, printed circuit boards, otherwise simply known as PCBs, are used for connecting electronic components together, using conductive tracks, pads and more. PCBs are responsible for mechanically supporting the electronic components of the product, most of which are soldered to the board. Since every electronic product is different and is made using different components, the whole process of manufacturing printed circuit boards is highly customized. In this post, we will talk in detail about the production process, the basics of prototypes and how you can find a manufacturer for production needs.

Manufacturing PCB

When it comes to printed circuit boards, precision is one aspect that electronic production companies and manufacturers are most concerned about. Basically, printed circuit boards offer the base for ensuring productivity and function for the concerned product, and for that, the design of the concerned PCB must be as intended. For the purpose, a PCB prototype is required. If the product is still in use, previous PCB prototypes can be sent to the manufacturer for mass production. However, for new products, a prototype must be made, and that can take a lot of time and effort.

How Does It Work?

First and foremost, one must find a manufacturer who specializes in prototypes. Long before the production process begins, prototypes of the required printed circuit boards are made and tested on many levels, so as to ensure function and feature. Depending on the complications of the PCB, making the prototype may take more time than usual. A PCB prototype, once ready, is further tested in many cases by third-party services, after which it is sent for production. Only a few manufacturers have the engineering abilities and expertise to design PCB prototypes, and the choice must be made with care because the whole function and other aspects of the final product are dependent on that. More often than not, producing the PCB prototype requires more time and investment than the actual production.

Finding a Company

There are many companies that specialize in producing printed circuit boards, and you can expect the best services from them. Before you select one, check their areas of expertise and the range of clients and projects they have managed so far. It is also important to understand their infrastructure and production capabilities before placing an order. At the end of the day, printed circuit boards are all about performance, and you would want a company that can ensure quality, function, and features without any compromises. Of course, the cost of production is one of the many aspects that one must consider, and more than that, one must find ways to reduce the overall costs. Check if you can get a discount on massive orders, and get an estimate in advance so that you can compare the choices. For printed circuit boards, you need to find a reliable name, even if that means paying a tad more.

3D printing has made a strong stand in the printing industry and has given a tough competition to traditional manufacturing. It has successfully left its impact in every nook and corner of this world. Advancement in 3D printing has affected the production of prototypes, jewelry, architecture, portraits, aerospace and medical field. Food Science has also witnessed a major change with the coming up of 3D printing. You can now print out your favorite chocolates the way you want to eat it. That made you skip a beat, didn’t it? This is the magic of 3D printing and it has led to a major 3D printing success; renovating the wildest impossible ideas and presenting it to the real world in the most artistic way possible.

What has led to the 3D printing success?

This printing industry has been successful in gaining popularity and firming its position in this ever-advancing business. Quality of phenomenally managing time, helping its customers to get their products to develop fast, reducing the cost of the final product has led to consumer satisfaction on a bigger scale. It involves a technology of printing by interpreting the digitally supplied coordinates with the help of a 3D printer.

Now, you might think how does this make it better?

Well, describing the product is sometimes a very difficult thing to do because it leaves construction up to the imagination. A picture always acts up as a savior since it is worth a thousand words. There is no ambiguity when you hold the exact replica or at least a very close representation of your artifact. 3D printing industry allows self-designing of a product by its customers which contributes to the creativity of the industry. All this has led to the 3D printing success.

3D printing has witnessed a huge transition if we compare its present development to when it started back in 1986 by Chuck Hull. Though it is not possible to completely eradicate the traditional manufacturing, it is strongly believed that 3D printing would give a tough competition to it in future.

3D Printing Success Stories

1. Pictures are meant for everyone

‘Touchable memories’ by pirate3D, turns photographs into 3D-printed objects for people without vision. This was a social experiment to create an awareness of the unlimited possibilities of using technology to improve lives. The task was performed using an affordable home printer called Buccaneer. It led the visually impaired to re-experience images by feeling the artifact and fabricating a tangible scene of it.

2. Nike does it again

Nike launched the rebento duffel, the first 3D printed performance sports bag for Brazil’s 2014 FIFA World Cup. The carry-piece takes styling cues from the sports company’s fly knit pattern of the magista and mercurial. A laser-sintered nylon creates an intertwined weave seamlessly fitting into the 3D printed base without the use of glue or adhesive. The premium leather upper and strap construction also gives the body a lightweight, yet durable structure that allows for flex.

3. Don’t judge it on its size

LIX, A London based company has successfully created the World’s smallest 3D printing pen. The device enables users to create in the air. Sounds Impossible? But, as always 3D printing has made it possible. Made out of aluminum and measuring 164mm x 14mm, this device allows users to make objects in just a few seconds, including calligraphy, accessories, and one-off prototypes. It functions similar to a 3D printer the only difference is that it is a USB port charging pen which quickly melts and cools colored plastic enabling the pen to create rigid and freestanding structures.

The rapid expansion of a huge international market requires the industrial sector to optimize production processes to achieve a greater market share and increase competitiveness. To achieve this, engineering has promoted the development of areas such as mechanics, electronics and robotics to manage and consolidate the automation of industrial processes.

Automation is the implementation of intelligent systems and technologies to operate machinery and control production processes, regardless of human operation in jobs that require greater effort and represent a huge risk to the health and welfare of workers. Currently, there are three types of automation in accordance with the degree of production and needs of a certain industry:

Fixed Automation:

Designed for large-scale manufacturing: A specialized machine or equipment is used to produce a part of a product or the product itself, in a fixed and continuous sequence. This type of automation is ideal for producing large volumes of products that have a long-life cycle, an invariable design and a broad consumer demand. Its main limitations are the high initial cost and the lack of flexibility of the equipment to adapt.

Programmable Automation:

Suitable for a smaller production volume, segmented by batches, programmable automation allows to change or reprogram the sequence of operation, by means of a software, to include the variations of the product. Among the most used equipment for this type of automation are numerical control machines, robots and programmable logic controllers.

Flexible Automation:

Designed for an average production level, flexible automation is the extension of programmable automation. It reduces the programming time of the equipment and allows to alternate the elaboration of two products (in series) when mixing different variables. Flexibility refers to the ability of teams to accept changes in the design and configuration of the product, thus reducing costs for companies.

Advantages of Industrial Automation

  • Decreases manufacturing costs
  • Increases the efficiency of the production process.
  • Speeds the response to market demands.
  • Replaces the man with complicated industrial processes that endanger his physical integrity
  • Favors business competitiveness.
  • Improves the security of the processes and the quality of the production.

Disadvantages of Industrial Automation

  • Generates technological dependence
  • Requires a large initial investment
  • Lack of trained personnel to manage the equipment
  • Susceptibility to technological obsolescence
  • The resistance of the workers to the change

One of the main challenges of the implementation of automated systems in industries is to balance the work done by computerized equipment and robots with the work performed by the operators. While technology helps to optimize processes and limits human intervention, it does not replace it completely. The error is to associate industrial automation with unemployment since human presence is necessary for the management, supervision and control of complex production processes.

Manufacturers are always looking for techniques to reduce their cost. Here are five of them that will help the manufacturers reduce cost irrespective of their sector. The primary step would be to assess their process and do on internal audit. Only when the big picture is at view, methods can be implemented to reduce the costs.

Energy Efficiency

Most of the time without our notice we tend to waste a lot of electricity. Implementing sensors that would stop the machines immediately after usage can reduce quite a lot of cost. Replacing energy guzzling machinery with those consuming less energy can save up to 10% of the cost. Usage of alternative energy sources like solar energy which is the cheapest source of energy can cut down operating cost significantly.

Fixed Cost Reduction

Machinery for a manufacturing industry is very important, but only a few machineries are constantly used. Hence, owning the machinery that is used passively wouldn’t be feasible; renting/leasing such machinery can reduce the fixed cost. Using automation in production process can decrease the labour cost abundantly. Outsourcing advertising, marketing and sales could also help in cost reduction.

Overhead Cost Reduction

Maintaining inventory by not over producing and recycling/selling the wastage or scrap of the raw material can always free up and manage the factory space and reduce wastage. At times, outsourcing supply can reduce the business space, risk, staff, and maintenance of vehicles. Buying raw materials at bulk and sharing it with another manufacturer can reduce the material and inventory space. Intercom and internet calling, conferencing and video calling meetings can help reduce administrative cost.

Reduction in Labour Costs

Usage of technology for the manufacturing process like implementing sensors and automation, robotics can drop down as the number of labours drops as the automation requires less human interference and is more accurate. Using part time workers and free lancers can eliminate the idle time of labourers. Implementing methods to increase efficiency; comfortable positive workplace, eliminating overtime as it reduces efficiency, training employees, getting to know the employees, reskilling of the employees rather than assigning them monotonous task can help the manufacturer make optimum use of the labour force.

Customer related cost reduction

Technology can help the manufacturer cut down the cost in every stage of the manufacturing process and also at marketing. Using technology for marketing, advertising and promoting of goods can reduce cost abundantly. Designing products digitally 3D print of the product would help the manufacturer in better understanding of customer needs and can reduce correction and reproduction.

Choosing the right solvent for extracting from plant material is essential if you want to obtain the full benefits and who knows this better than the herbal extracts manufacturers. If the herbal extract has to be used orally for medicine formulations then the solvent will be different than the one used for isolating secondary plant compounds. Normally, in the first case vinegar, alcohol and vegetable glycerine are made use of while extracting the herbal compounds and in most cases, alcohol is the popularly chosen medium. It is highly effective in the breakdown of tough herbs such as berries and barks and helps in extraction of waxes, fats, resins, few volatile oils and many alkaloids from herbs.

Food-grade vegetable glycerine is another solvent type that helps in the extraction of some alkaloids, tannins, acids and few minerals from plant material. Herbal extracts prepared using vinegar are called as herbal vinegars. However, secondary plant compounds are extracted by means of solvents other than those used above. Pure acetone, ethanol at a rather upper boiling point, methanol at a rather lower boiling point or water/acetone mixtures is normally used in these cases. For extraction of lipophilic compounds, solvents such as chloroform or petrol are resorted to.

In the paint industry, solvents play an important role in dispersing or dissolving the resin or pigments for paint formulations. It enables the paint to arrive at the required consistency so that it can be applied smoothly and evenly. Evaporation of the solvent takes place after application of the paint enabling the pigment and the resin to develop a coat of paint that dries rapidly. Solvent based paints are a preferred choice due to the performance advantages provided by them and account for a large percentage of industrial applications.

Superior finishing and flexibility of use are the two major benefits offered by them and in some applications as in case of architectural coatings it is the best option due to high performance requirements. There are different solvents used in industrial applications depending upon the purposes. Mineral spirits, VM&P naphtha, denatured ethyl alcohol, lacquer thinner, toluene, xylene are just to name a few of them. However, the solvents in the paint industry are regulated by governments due to environmental concerns. But with advancements in science and technology, modern hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents help to economically address environmental issues besides offering durability and high product performance.

As far as reactive dyes are concerned they form an important ingredient for the textile industry. With regard to textile processing, there are three types of solvents that are being used; namely Tri-chloro Ethylene, Methyl Chloroform and Per-chloro Ethylen. Among the three, however, tri-chloroethylene is most suited. Though several advantages are obtained by solvent dyeing reactive dye manufacturers however, attribute high production costs to solvent dyeing in textile processing.

Phase 0: Feasibility Analysis

The goal of this phase is to identify existing technology to achieve the intended high-level function. If technology can be purchased as opposed to developed, the scope of subsequent development phases changes.

Simply put, product development companies research and assess the probability that the current technology can be used to reach the intended functionality of the product. By doing this, the development efforts are reduced, which in financial terms represent a great reduction in development costs.

Moreover, if the technology is not yet available, then the assessment can result in longer development cycles and the focus moves into creating the new technology (if humanly possible) that can accomplish the functionality of the product.

This is an important part of the in any product development process because it is safer and financially responsible to understand the constraints that a product can have prior to starting a full development cycle. A feasibility study can cost between 7 -15 thousand dollars. It might be sound very expensive for some, but when it is much better than investing $100k+ to end up with a product that no manufacturer is able to produce.

Phase 1: Specification or PRD (Product Requirements Document) development

If your product is feasible, congratulations! you are a step closer to creating your product and you can move into documenting what is going to go into the product itself, aka the guts (product objective, core components, intended end-user, aesthetics, User interphase, etc).

In this phase, product design and engineering focus on documenting the critical functionality, constraints, and inputs to the design. This is a critical step to keep development focused, identify the high-risk areas, and ensure that scope creep is minimized later.

This document will help you communicate the key features of your product and how they are supposed to work to all members of your team. This will ensure that you keep everyone involved on the same page.

Without one, you are more likely to stay off track and miss deadlines. think about the PRD as your project management breakdown structure (BDS)

Phase 2: Concept Development

Initial shape development work identifies options for form, as well as possible approaches for complex mechanical engineering challenges. Initial flowchart of software/firmware also happens here, as well as concept design level user interface work. Aesthetic prototypes may be included in this Phase, if appropriate. Prototype in this phase will not typically be functional.

Phase 3: Initial Design and Engineering

Based on decisions made at the end a concept development phase, actual product design and engineering programming can start. In this phase, Level 1 prototypes are often used to test approaches to technical challenges.

Phase 4: Design Iteration

This part of the project is where we focus on rapid cycles, quickly developing designs and prototypes, as the depth of engineering work increases. This phase can include Level 2 and 3 prototypes, typically through multiple cycles. Some products require as many as twenty prototype cycles in this phase. Others may only require two or three.

Phase 5: Design Finalization / Optimization

With all assumptions tested and validated, the design can be finalized and then optimized for production. To properly optimize for production, product design and engineering teams take into account the target production volumes, as well as the requirements of the manufacturer. Regulatory work may start in this phase.

Phase 6: Manufacturing Start and Support

Before production starts, tooling is produced, and initial units are inspected. Final changes are negotiated with the manufacturer. Regulatory work also should wrap up in this phase.